Nazi Rule in Germany
2 Reichsmark 1937
|History - Nazi Rule in Germany 1933 - 1945||Banknotes|
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1918 - 1933 The time before Nazi Rule
The peace treaty of Versailles 1919 condemned Germany to pay high
reparations. These were payments for war damages caused by Germany and its
allies. The Treaty said that Germany was the main responsible country for
the begining of World War I. Germany lost also large parts of its country
like West Prussia, North Slesvig, the corridore to East Prussia, Danzig,
Eupen and Malmedy, parts of Oberschlesien, Memel and so on.
In the 1920s in Europe the wave of the future appeared to be a form of nationalistic, militaristic totalitarianism known by its Italian name, fascism.
Benito Mussolini established the first Fascist dictatorship in Italy in
In the early 1930s, the depression and a high unemployment hit Germany. The moderate parties could not agree on what to do about it, and large numbers of voters turned to the Nazis and Communists.
1933 - 1939
In 1933 Hitler became the German chancellor with the help of the
former nationalist chancellor von Papen and the agreement of the very old
German nationlist president General Feldmarschall von Hindenburg who had
been the most famous general of World War I.
This was the startup of one of the worst times of German and World history. Under the rule of the tyrant Hitler and his followers millions of people lost their live in war. The Nazis also slaughtered millions of Jews, Sinti and Roma (Gypsies), Slavic peoples, and many others, all of whom they considered inferior or didn't agree to national socialist ideology. This period changed the World completely, brought the communists into the middle of Europe and formed the post World War II main powers USA and USSR.
A few weeks before Hindenburg's death the leader of Nazi organization SA
(Sturmabteilung) and some other people who would have become dangerous for
Hitler's lonely rule were killed. This episode was called "Röhm
Putsch". Hitler could now rule Germany without any competitor.
One of the great successes of the Nazis was that they solved the
problem of unemployment. They solved this problem with smaller wages,
building of highways, unification of all labor unions under the German
Labor Front under Nazi controll and with the process of German rearmament.
The first discriminatory laws against Jews came in 1933. These laws
barred Jews from government employment and restricted their admission to
universities. In subsequent years, the anti-Semitic laws became
increasingly harsh. At the end the Jews were rightless and nearly all was
forbidden for them. So they didn't have the right to own pets, drive a car
or to use the train.
Starting in 1933, Hitler began the process of German rearmament and
Annex of Austria 1938
By 1937 Hitler was openly threatening the Austrian government and massing troops along the Austrian border. In March 1938 the Austrian Schuschnigg chancellor and dictator resigned and was replaced by the member of the Austrian Nazi Party Seyss Inquart. On March 12, Hitler ordered his army to march into Austria. They met no resistance, and the following day in Vienna, Hitler proclaimed the official union of Austria and Germany.
Annex of Sudetenland, Böhmen & Mähren, Memel 1938 / 1939
Threats against Poland
Also in March 1939 Hitler demanded an exterritorial connection between
the German East Prussia and the German Empire. Both parts of Germany were
seperated by a corridore which was part of Poland.
1939 - 1941 Begin of World War II - The Blitzkrieg
Occupation of Poland 1939
France made during this time only some small symbolic attacks at the
German west front.
Occupation of Denmark and Norway 1940
In spring 1940 the German army occupied Denmark and Norway. Britain
planed also an action against Norway because it was of so large strategic
importance. But Germany was faster than Britain.
Occupation of Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium and France 1940 - The greatest victory of the German army
On May 10, 1940 the German troops started the invasion of France and
the neutral countries Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium.
Netherlands had to surrender after only five days.
The best German tanks made an attack through the difficult passable Ardennes. The Allies didn't think that there could be made a tank attack. After the Germans tanks had passed the Ardennes they advanced very fast to the Channel Coast. Now all allied troops with hundred of thousands soldiers north of this attack were encircled. They withdrawed to Dunkerque. The British Navy rescued with much effort large parts of this troops. They evacuated them to Britain with each ship they could get. But Germany had won this campaign. The Germans conquered in the following weeks French capital Paris and the most part of France until France surrendered on June 22.
On June 10 Italy declared war to France and Britain. Now Italy was partner of Germany in this cruel war.
War in Africa 1940 / 1941
Until February 1941 British troops could conquer large parts of Lybia. But then the German "Afrikakorps" a small modern army with a lot of tanks helped Italy. The general of the Afrikakorps was the famous German general Erwin Rommel also known as "Wüstenfuchs". The Aftrikakorps attacked the British army and advanced very fast to the border of Egypt where the British army stopped them.
German Air Attack against Britain 1940 /1941
First German air planes bombed these air places. This became very dangerous for the Royal Air Force (RAF) . It was the idea of Churchill to bomb civil targets of the german capital Berlin. This was not very effective and Britain lost a lot of bombers but Hitler was silly enough to become so angry about this that he ordered to attack civil targets in London. So got the RAF the breather that it needed so much and won this battle in the end.
At the end of 1940 Hitler stopped his plans of invasion of the British
islands. His next target was Russia.
Occupation of Yugoslavia and Greece 1941
At the end of 1940 Mussolini wanted to imitate the so successful
attacks of Germany. Since 1939 Albania was part of Italy. Mussolini wanted
to annex parts of Greece. So he declared war to Greece and attacked Greece
with his army. But the Greece army repulsed and conquered large parts of
War against the USSR 1941
1942 German Nazis on the Height of their Might and the Change
1943 - 1944 The big Defeats of Germany and the Cruelties of Holocaust
1945 The end of World War II and a new Begin
Gallery of German banknotes issued during German Nazi Rule
|5 Reichsmark issued 1942|
|100 Reichsmark issued 1935 - 1945|
|10 Reichsmark issued by the German Army during war|
Issued in German protectoriate Böhmen & Mähren (part of Czechoslovakia)
Gallery of German coins issued during German Nazi Rule
|5 Reichspfennig 1939|
|10 Reichspfennig 1938|
|1 Reichspfennig 1941, zinc
Issued during World War II
|50 Reichspfennig 1940, aluminium
The former nickel 50 Pfennig coins were melted for military economy
|2 Reichsmark 1937
Potrait of President von Hindenburg
|20 Mark issued in the Jewish Ghetto Litzmannstadt (Lodz) in german occupied Poland|
Gallery of German stamps issued during German Nazi Rule
|12 Reichspfennig with president Hindenburg , issued 1933/36|
|12 Reichspfennig with Hitler , issued 1942|
|Mussolini & Hitler , issued 1941|
|40 Reichspfennig, issued 1943|
|15 Reichspfennig, issued 1944|
|Adolf Hitler in WIKIPEDIA||Information about Hitler in WIKIPEDIA|
|World War II||Information about WWII in WIKIPEDIA|
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